Personality Test and Software to Measure Arousal Seeking
(Sensation, Stimulus, or Change Seeking, and Risk Taking)

Arousal Seeking Tendency Defined
Individuals who have a tendency to seek arousal have some or all of the following attributes: they like and seek out change, variety, activity, stimulation, unpredictable people and situations, and risk.

The Arousal Seeking Tendency Scale (MAST) is a measure of individual differences in seeking arousal, stimulus seeking, or change seeking. The version currently in use (Mehrabian, 1994) was originally developed by Mehrabian and Russell (1973) and was subsequently revised by Mehrabian (1978). It contains 32 items and subjects report the degree of their agreement or disagreement with each item using a 9-point agreement-disagreement scale.

The Arousal Seeking Tendency Scale appears to be relevant for studying addictive personality and also has been used extensively in studies of Optimum Stimulation Level (OSL). It is strongly recommended that studies of OSL also include the Mehrabian Trait Arousability Scale along with the MAST (e.g., in studies of shopping behavior, store preferences, voting preferences)

Arousal Seeking Tendency Scale Software
Software for administering, scoring, and interpreting the Arousal Seeking Tendency Scale is available. It runs on IBM-compatible operating systems and provides (a) total score, equivalent percentile score,equivalent z-score, and interpretation of these scores for each person tested and (b) a database of scores for all individuals tested. The software is extremely easy to use and is password protected so that the Administrator can control access to the database of results. In this way, individuals being tested cannot have access to the results, unless the Administrator chooses to report such results to them.

Sample Items
Test Features
Reliability and Validity Data
Reliability and validity data for the Arousal Seeking Tendency Scale (MAST) were reported by Baumgartner and Steenkamp (1994).
Baumgartner, H., & Steenkamp, J. E. M. (1994). An investigation into the construct validity of the Arousal-Seeking Tendency Scale, Version II. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 993-1001.

Mehrabian, A. (1978). Characteristic individual reactions to preferred and unpreferred environments. Journal of Personality, 46, 717-731.

Mehrabian, A. (1994). Manual for the Arousal Seeking Tendency Scale (MAST). (Available from Albert Mehrabian, 1130 Alta Mesa Road, Monterey, CA, USA 93940).

Mehrabian, A. (1996). Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament. Current Psychology, 14, 261-292.

Mehrabian, A., & O'Reilly, E. (1980). Analysis of personality measures in terms of basic dimensions of temperament. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 492-503.

Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J.A. (1973). A measure of arousal seeking tendency. Environment and Behavior, 5, 315-333.

Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J.A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA.

Steenkamp, J.E.M., & Baumgartner, H. (1992). The role of optimum stimulation level in exploratory consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 19, 434-448.

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