Measures for Various Aspects of Emotional Intelligence
For definition of emotional intelligence and theoretical issues regarding its measurement, please see the section below on Theoretical Consideration.
For detailed description of a very general emotional intelligence scale, see:
The second of these tests is the Affiliative Tendency Scale (MAFF). Affiliative persons are friendly, sociable, helpful, and skillful in dealing with people, and open about their feelings. They make good companions because they are pleasant and agreeable. Others feel comfortable with them and like them. In other words, affiliative persons have superior emotional and social skills in dealing with others, derive gratification and reward from their interpersonal contacts, and tend to be a source of happiness to others. Affiliative Tendency is understandably important in achieving success in relationships and can be an asset generally in other settings (e.g., work). A general review article bearing on the Affiliative Tendency Scale (MAFF) is available and deals with the reliability and validity of that scale (Mehrabian, 1994). Use the link Affiliative Tendency to obtain more information about the MAFF.
You can use a combination of the BEES and the MAFF as follows. First, you would obtain two separate scores (one for the BEES and a second for the MAFF) for each of the participants in your study. You would correlate both these scores, separately, with any other tests or criterion measures you are employing in your study. You would also be able to test relations of both scales to your criterion measure using regression analysis, as follows:
Criterion measure = a * BEES + b * MAFF
where (a) and (b) are regression beta weights. In case you are not familiar with regression analysis, you can simply use correlations of the BEES and of the MAFF with any other measures you use in your study.
With reference to the conventional definition of emotional intelligence, these two scales relate to emotional control, impulse control, goal management, and self-motivation. In short, whether viewed primarily in terms of their relevance to life success or in terms of the conventional definition of emotional intelligence, Achieving Tendency and Disciplined Goal Orientation are deemed to be highly relevant for assessing emotional intelligence.
There are two alternative approaches to the measurement of Relaxed Temperament:
In the first approach, you would use the PAD Temperament Scales, consisting of the Trait Pleasure-Displeasure, Trait Arousability, and Trait Dominance- Submissiveness scales. High emotional intelligence would be identified with high Trait Pleasure (i.e., a pleasant temperament), high Trait Dominance (i.e., high internal control), and low Trait Arousability (i.e., low general emotionality or emotional reactivity), listed in order of importance. If you need to minimize the number of tests you use, then you ideally would use a combination of the Trait Pleasure and Trait Dominance scales (or, at the very least, use the Trait Pleasure Scale). You can select "PAD Temperament Model" below to obtain more information about the Trait Pleasure-Displeasure, Trait Arousability, and Trait Dominance-Submissiveness scales.
Most importantly, the Relaxed Temperament Scale is an excellent predictor of life success. It has been found to exhibit significant positive relations with a highly diverse set of life success measures (e.g., relationships, work, career).
Here is a list of the test manuals corresponding to the above scales:
Theoretical Considerations: Rational Underlying the Concept of Emotional Intelligence & an Alternative Approach to its Measurement
Proponents of the concept of emotional intelligence have argued that IQ measures fail to account for (or explain) most of the variance in individual differences in life success. Alternative measures dealing with various aspects of an individual's emotional functioning are then offered for understanding why some persons are successful in life and
others are not. Bear in mind, then, that life success (e.g., success in relationships with mates or co-workers, success at work) is the key issue here and that personality scales are needed to help us make better predictions of life success than can be achieved with IQ measures alone.
An alternative to the conventional definition and measurement of emotional intelligence deals directly with the key issue: life success. What personality and temperament characteristics exhibit sufficiently strong relations to life success so they can provide superior predictions of success when compared with IQ measures? When the question is stated in this way, experimental findings supply the following answers.
Back to Section on How to Measure Emotional Intelligence.
Mehrabian, A. (1969). Measures of achieving tendency. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 29, 445-451.
Mehrabian, A. (1994). Evidence bearing on the Affiliative Tendency (MAFF) and Sensitivity to Rejection (MSR) Scales. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 13, 97-116.
Mehrabian, A. (1994-95). Individual differences in achieving tendency: Review of evidence bearing on a questionnaire measure. Current Psychology, 13, 351-364.
Mehrabian, A. (1996a). Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 14, 261-292.
Mehrabian, A. (1996b). Analysis of the Big-five personality factors in terms of the PAD Temperament Model. Australian Journal of Psychology, 48, 86-92.
Mehrabian, A. (1997). Relations among personality scales of aggression, violence, and empathy: Validational evidence bearing on the Risk of Eruptive Violence scale. Aggressive Behavior, 23,433-445.
Mehrabian, A. (2000). Beyond IQ: Broad-based measurement of individual success potential or "emotional intelligence." Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126, 133-239.
Mehrabian, A., Stefl, C.A., & Mullen, M. (1997). Emotional thinking in the adult: Individual differences in mysticism and globality- differentiation. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 16, 325-355.
Mehrabian, A., Young, A.L., & Sato, S. (1988). Emotional empathy and associated individual differences. Current Psychology: Research & Reviews, 7, 221-240.