Self-Esteem Test and Optimism-Pessimism Tests & Software

Background and Definitions
Definition of Self-Esteem: Self-esteem can be defined as a generalized positive-negative attitude toward oneself; that is, how positively or negatively, in general, an individual thinks and feels about himself. Personality scales of self-esteem (e.g., Overholser, 1993) often include the word "confidence" in positively worded items (e.g., feeling confident about one's own mental and physical abilities or about being accepted, liked, and admired by others) and words relating to positive-negative affect (e.g., feeling pleased or satisfied with one's appearance or one's abilities versus feeling ashamed, worried, anxious, or depressed).

Definition of Optimism-Pessimism: Optimism-pessimism refers to an emotional and cognitive predisposition to feel and think that the good things in life outweigh the bad. A related aspect of optimism-pessimism is a generalized emotional and cognitive predisposition or inclination to think of, and react emotionally to, others, events, and situations in positive and favorable ways and generally to expect future outcomes to be positive, beneficial, and good instead of negative, harmful, and bad. Thus, optimists are generally inclined to believe that good, rather than bad, things are currently happening and will continue to happen to them. In contrast, pessimists are generally inclined to regard and experience present and future events in a negative light; that is, to feel and think that bad elements outweigh the good and that future outcomes are likely to be negative and bad.

Software for the Self-Esteem & Optimism-Pessimism Scales
Software for administering, scoring, and interpreting the Self-Esteem and Optimism-Pessimism Scales is available. It is a console (non-graphic) program and runs on IBM-compatible machines. The software may be useful even if you plan on group administering the paper and pencil version of the scales given in the test manual. In that case, you can use the software to input data from each participant and have the software compute total scores and z-scores for all participants.

The software provides (a) total score, equivalent z-score, equivalent percentile score, and interpretation of these scores for each person tested and (b) a database of scores for all individuals tested. Additionally, the software includes a feature for exporting a printable text file (.txt format) of the data.

The software is easy to use and is password protected so that the Administrator can control access to the database of results. In this way, individuals being tested cannot have access to the results, unless the Administrator chooses to report such results to them.

Use the contact button below to request a price quote for the software that can be used to administer, score, and interpret these two scales.

Scale Descriptions: Format, Sample Items, Features
The 11-item Mehrabian Self-Esteem (MSE) and 8-item Mehrabian Optimism-Pessimism (MOP) scales are usually administered together, because of evidence reviewed and provided by Mehrabian (1988) showing that the two scales are strongly related, though slightly distinct, aspects of personality.

Sample Items
Test Features
Validity Data
Validity of the Self-Esteem Scale: Validity data on the Mehrabian Self-Esteem Scale (MSE) reported in the manual and in Mehrabian(2000) show that it correlates: Validity of the Optimism-Pessimism Scale: Validity data on the Mehrabian Optimism-Pessimism Scale (MOP) reported in the manual and in Mehrabian (2000) show that it correlates:
Mehrabian, A. (1998). Manual for the Self-Esteem and Optimism-Pessimism Scales. (Available from Albert Mehrabian, 1130 Alta Mesa Road, Monterey, CA, USA 93940).

Mehrabian, A. (2000). Beyond IQ: Broad-based measurement of individual success potential or "emotional intelligence." Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126,133-239.


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